We dedicate this work to several of the giants whose shoulders we timidly stand upon.

Raymond B. Daniels 1925-2009

...."these Carolina Bays are merely surface features associated with the formation of the ridge"

J. Harlen Bretz 1882-1981

...."Ideas without precedent are generally looked upon with disfavor and men are shocked if their conceptions of an orderly world are challenged."

Ignatius Donnelly 1831 - 1901

Immanuel Velikovsky 1895 - 1979

.... Velikovsky's ideas are mostly incorrect, but Sagan has lectured that we must not attempt to supress such hypotehsis: uTube Video from COSMOS series

Alfred Lothar Wegener 1880- 1930
..... "Reaction to Wegener's theory was almost uniformly hostile, and often exceptionally harsh and scathing"..."

Harry Hammond Hess 1906 – 1969

Carl Sagan 1934 - 1996 see also COSMOS Series

Douglas Wilson Johnson 1878 - 1944
.... "No one has yet invented an explanation which will fully account for all the facts observed"

Barry Marshall "Science needs solid research, but it also needs someone with great vision. Barry had vision."- Blaser


The inspiration for this exploration was an exhibit on the enigma of the Carolina bay landforms at the North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, in Raleigh, NC.

The genesis of our solution was a single paragraph in the paper The Goldsboro Ridge, an Enigma by R. B. Daniels, E. E. Gamble and W. H. Wheeler

The Goldsboro sand overlies the Sunderland Formation conformably. The contact is always abrupt but there is no evidence of deep channeling, basal coarse material, and evidence of weathering at the contact. Even the Carolina Bays do not disturb the underlying Sunderland materials (Figure 3). The sand in the bay rim is not different from the Goldsboro sand. Therefore, these Carolina Bays are merely surface features associated with the formation of the ridge.1

If it were not for Mr. Bob Kobres posting the paper on his site, we would likely not have arrived at a solution. When located, it was the only copy that seemed to be available anywhere on the web.

In 1982, two British astronomers, S. V. M (Victor) Clube and William Napier, published a book entitled "The Cosmic Serpent" . The first paragraph of that book presents an engaging concept:

In this book we bring together hitherto unconnected strands in astronomy, biology and geology, and in the early history and mythology of man.

Clube and Napier identify the Taurid Complex as a possible source of the Saginaw impactor, perhaps early in it's million year history within the inner solar system . "The Cosmic Serpent" is a prologue to all presented here.

Johán Bert Kloosterman (also Han Kloosterman) (B.1931) is a geologist, and the founder publisher of Catastrophist Geology (1976-1978), the journal devoted to the study of discontinuities in Earth history. He has worked for mining companies, in West Africa and then in Brazil, mostly in alluvial prospecting for cassiterite, diamonds, gold.

"To prefer the simplest-sounding hypothesis over the best-fitting has had just as pernicious an effect in geology as in other fields of enquiry. Together with the statement to the contrary, that reality is always more complicated than we imagine, or can imagine, it gives a knife with two cutting edges in the hands of academic authorities too lazy to think. " CATASTROPHIST GEOLOGY 2000

1. The Goldsboro Ridge, an Enigma By R. B. Daniels, E. E. Gamble, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, and W. H. Wheeler, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina